Chapter 9 - Appendix

Tables from appendix of "Material and Energy Balances" (Matthew Liberatore). Copyright © "zyBooks" 2016.

Section 9.1 - Unit Conversions

Table 9.1.1: Common unit prefixes.

Table 9.1.2: Common unit conversions.

Section 9.2 - Nomenclature

Table 9.2.1: Nomenclature.

Section 9.3 - Finding data and correlations

Section 9.4 - Periodic table of the elements

Table 9.4.1: Periodic table of the elements.

Section 9.5 - Physical properties

Table 9.5.1: Physical properties for many common components.

Table 9.5.2: Physical properties for many common components 2.

Table 9.5.3: Physical properties for many common components 3.

Section 9.6 - Properties of subcooled liquid water/a>

Table 9.6.1: Subcooled liquid water table 1.

Table 9.6.2: Subcooled liquid water table part 2.

Section 9.7 - Saturated water - temperature table

Table 9.7.1: Saturated water - temperature table 1.

Table 9.7.2: Saturated water - temperature table 2.

Section 9.8 - Saturated water - pressure table

Table 9.8.1: Saturated water - pressure table 1.

Table 9.8.2: Saturated water - pressure table 2.

Section 9.9 - Superheated vapor water/steam table

Table 9.9.1: Superheated vapor (water/stream) table Part 1.

Table 9.9.2: Superheated vapor (water/stream) table Part 2.

Table 9.9.3: Superheated vapor (water/stream) table Part 3.

Table 9.9.4: Superheated vapor (water/stream) table Part 4.

Section 9.10 - Vapor pressure

Table 9.10.1: Vapor Pressure.

Section 9.11 - Heat capacity

Table 9.11.1: Heat capacity data for common components.

Table 9.11.2: Heat capacity data for some components.

Section 9.12 - Heat of solution for three common solutions

Table 9.12.1: Heat of solution.


Section 9.1 - Unit Conversions

Units conversions and prefixes.

Table 9.1.1: Common unit prefixes.
PrefixAbbreviationConversionExample
Microμ1 unit = 1,000,000 μ-unit1 m = 1,000,000 μm
Millim1 unit = 1000 m-unit 1 g = 1000 mg
Centic1 unit = 100 c-unit1 m = 100 cm
Kilok1 unit = 0.001 k-unit1000 g = 1 kg
Table 9.1.2: Common unit conversions.
Type of unitEquivalent values
Mass 1 kg = 2.20462 lbm

1 lbm = 453.593 g
Length1 m = 3.2808 ft

1 ft = 12 in

1 ft = 30.48 cm
Volume1 m3 = 1000 L

1 m3= 35.3145 ft3

1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal
Force1 N = 1 kg·m/s2

1 N = 0.22481 lbf

1 lbf = 32.174 lbm·ft/s2
Pressure1 Pa = 1 N/m2

1 Pa = 1.4504 X 10-4 lbf/in.2 (psi)

1 atm = 1.01325 x 105 Pa

1 atm = 1.01325 bar

1 atm = 760 mmHg at 0°C

1 atm = 14.696 psi

1 atm = 33.9 ft H2O at 4 °C

1 atm = 29.921 in. Hg at 0 °C
Energy1 J = 1 N·m

1 J = 1 Pa·m3

1 kJ = 0.94782 BTU

1 kWh = 3600 kJ
Power1 kJ/kg = 1000 m2/s2

1 W = 1 J/s

1 W = 0.7376 ft·lbf/s

1 W = 9.4782 x 10-4 BTU/s

1 W = 1.341 x 10-3 hp
TemperatureT(K) = T(°C) + 273.15

T(R) = T(°F) + 459.67

T(°F) = 1.8T(°C) + 32
Temperature difference1.8°F/1°C

1.8°R/1K

1°F/1°R

1°C/1K
Time1 hr = 60 min

1 min = 60 s

Exploring further:


Section 9.2 - Nomenclature

Abbreviations used in this book.

Table 9.2.1: Nomenclature.
Symbol Definition (SI Units)
APAverage property
CPHeat capacity (J/K)
CVHeat capacity (J/K)
EKKinetic energy (J)
EPPotential energy (J)
fconv,iFractional conversion of component i (-)
fex,iFractional excess of component i (-)
gAcceleration due to gravity (m/s2)
H Enthalpy (J)
hSpecific enthalpy (J/kg or J/mol)
haAbsolute humidity or moisture content (-)
mMass (kg)
MTotal mass (kg)
\( {\small{\sf{\dot m}}} \)Mass flow rate (kg/s)
\(\small{\sf{\dot m_{i,j}}} \)Component mass flow rate of stream i and component j (kg/s)
\(\small{\sf{\dot m_i}}\)Mass flow rate of stream i (kg/s)
MWMolecular weight (kg/kmol)
nMoles (mol)
NTotal moles (mol)
\( \small{\sf{\dot n}}\)Molar flow rate (mol/s)
\( \small{\sf{\dot n_i}} \)Molar flow rate of stream i (mol/s)
\( \small{\sf{\dot n_{i,j}}} \)Component molar flow rate of stream i and component j (mol/s)
PPressure (Pa)
PabsAbsolute pressure (Pa)
PatmAtmospheric pressure (Pa)
PcCritical pressure (Pa)
PgGauge pressure (Pa)
PiPartial pressure (Pa)
PrReduced pressure (-)
PRiProperty of component i
\( \small{\sf{P^{sat}_i}} \)Vapor or saturation pressure (Pa)
QHeat (J)
RUniversal gas constant (J/mol-K)
RHRelative humidity (-)
STPStandard temperature pressure (-)
TTemperature or dry bulb temperature (K)
tTime (s)
TcCritical temperature (K)
TDEWDew point temperature (K)
TrReduced temperature (-)
TsatSaturation temperature (K)
TWETWet bulb temperature (K)
UInternal energy (J)
uSpecific internal energy (J/mol)
VVolume (m3)
vSpecific volume (m3/mol)
\(\small{\sf{\vec v}} \)Velocity (m/s)
\( \small{\sf{\dot V}} \)Volumetric flow rate (m3/s)
\(\small{\sf{\dot V_{i,j}}} \)Volumetric flow rate of stream i and component j (m3/s)
\( \small{\sf{\dot V_i}} \)Volumetric flow rate of stream i (m3/s)
VrReduced volume (-)
vSTPSpecific volume at STP conditions (m3/kmol)
WWork (J)
WFLFlow work (J)
WMBMoving boundary work (J)
WSShaft work (J)
xMole fraction or liquid mole fraction (-)
yMole fraction or vapor mole fraction (-)
zVertical height (m)
ZCompressibility factor (-)
ΔDifference between two states or properties
ΔhfHeat of formation (J/mol)
ΔhmHeat of fusion or melting (J/mol)
ΔhMIXHeat of mixing (J/mol)
\(\small{\sf{\Delta h_f^o}} \)Standard heat of formation (J/mol)
\(\small{\sf{\Delta h_r^o}} \)Standard heat of reaction (J/mol)
ΔhrHeat of reaction (J/mol)
ΔhsHeat of solution (J/mol)
ΔhvHeat of vaporization (J/mol)
μViscosity (Pa-s)
\( {\sf{\nu_i}} \)Stoichiometric coefficient (-)
ξExtent of reaction (mol or mol/s)
ρDensity (kg/m3)

Section 9.3 - Finding data and correlations

Data are important for engineering calculations including material and energy balances. These facts and data are adapted from various sources listed below. These data are not restricted by copyright laws. Therefore, these tables can easily be copied to a spreadsheet for simplifying calculations.

Data has been adapted from various sources including: Elementary principles of chemical processes by Richard M. Felder and Ronald W. Rousseau, John Wiley, 2000; E.W. Lemmon, M.O. McLinden and D.G. Friend, "Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems" in NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69, Eds. P.J. Linstrom and W.G. Mallard, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD.

Exploring further:

A few place to find unit converters, the periodic table, and general engineering data.


Section 9.4 - Periodic table of the elements

Atomic masses have been limited to 4 significant figures for simplicity.

Table 9.4.1: Periodic table of the elements.
Element Name SymbolAtomic NumberAtomic Mass
HydrogenH11.008
HeliumHe24.003
LithiumLi36.941
BerylliumBe49.012
BoronB510.81
CarbonC612.01
NitrogenN714.01
OxygenO816.00
FluorineF919.00
NeonNe1020.18
SodiumNa1122.99
MagnesiumMg1224.31
AluminumAl1326.98
SiliconSi1428.09
PhosphorusP1530.97
SulfurS1632.07
ChlorineCl1735.45
ArgonAr1839.95
PotassiumK1939.10
CalciumCa2040.08
ScandiumSc2144.96
TitaniumTi2247.87
VanadiumV2350.94
ChromiumCr2452.00
ManganeseMn2554.94
IronFe2655.85
CobaltCo2758.93
NickelNi2858.69
CopperCu2963.55
ZincZn3065.41
GalliumGa3169.72
GermaniumGe3272.64
ArsenicAs3374.92
SeleniumSe3478.96
BromineBr3579.90
KryptonKr3683.80
RubidiumRb3785.47
StrontiumSr3887.62
YttriumY3988.91
ZirconiumZr4091.22
NiobiumNb4192.91
MolybdenumMo4295.94
TechnetiumTc4398
RutheniumRu44101.1
RhodiumRh45102.9
PalladiumPd46106.4
SilverAg47107.9
CadmiumCd48112.4
IndiumIn49114.8
TinSn50118.71
AntimonySb51121.8
TelluriumTe52127.6
IodineI53126.9
XenonXe54131.3
CesiumCs55132.9
BariumBa56137.3
LanthanumLa57138.9
CeriumCe58140.1
PraseodymiumPr59140.9
NeodymiumNd60144.2
PromethiumPm61145
SamariumSm62150.4
EuropiumEu63152.0
GadoliniumGd64157.3
TerbiumTb65158.9
DysprosiumDy66162.5
HolmiumHo67164.9
ErbiumEr68167.3
ThuliumTm69168.9
YtterbiumYb70173.0
LutetiumLu71175.0
HafniumHf72178.5
TantalumTa73180.9
TungstenW74183.8
RheniumRe75186.2
OsmiumOs76190.2
IridiumIr77192.2
PlatinumPt78195.1
GoldAu79197.0
MercuryHg80200.6
ThalliumTl81204.4
LeadPb82207.2
BismuthBi83209.0
PoloniumPo84209
AstatineAt85210
RadonRn86222
FranciumFr87223
RadiumRa88226
ActiniumAc89227
ThoriumTh90232.0
ProtactiniumPa91231.0
UraniumU92238.0
NeptuniumNp93237
PlutoniumPu94239
AmericiumAm95243
CuriumCm96247
BerkeliumBk97247
CaliforniumCf98251
EinsteiniumEs99252
FermiumFm100257
MendeleviumMd101258
NobeliumNo102259
LawrenciumLr103262
RutherfordiumRf104261
DubniumDb105262
SeaborgiumSg106266
BohriumBh107264
HassiumHs108277
MeitneriumMt109268
DarmstadtiumDs110281
RoentgentiumRg111272
CopernicumCn112285
UnuntriumUut113284
FleroviumFl114289
UnunpentiumUup115288
LivermoriumLv116292
UnunseptiumUus117293
UnunoctiumUuo118294

Section 9.5 - Physical properties

Physical properties are needed to perform many material or energy balance calculations. All properties are at 1 atm unless otherwise noted.

Table 1: Formula, molecular weight, and density (ρ)

Table 2: Melting temperature (Tm), heat of melting (Δhm), vaporization temperature (Tv), heat of vaporization (Δhv), critical temperature (Tc), critical pressure (Pc)

Table 3: Standard heat of formation (Δhfo), phase of formation, standard heat of combustion (Δhco), phase of combustion

The heats of combustion are for products of CO2(g) and H2O(l).

Table 9.5.1: Physical properties for many common components.
ComponentFormulaMWDensity at 20ºC g/cm3
AcetaldehydeCH3CHO44.050.783
Acetic AcidCH3COOH60.051.049
Acetic AcidCH3COOH60.05---
AcetoneC3H6O58.080.791
AcetoneC3H6O58.08---
AcetyleneC2H226.04---
AmmoniaNH317.03---
AmmoniaNH317.03---
Ammonium HydroxideNH4OH35.03---
Ammonium NitrateNH4NO380.051.725
Ammonium NitrateNH4NO380.05---
Ammonium Sulfate(NH4)2SO4132.141.769
Ammonium Sulfate(NH4)2SO4132.14---
AnilineC6H7N93.121.022
BenzaldehydeC6H5CHO106.121.046
BenzaldehydeC6H5CHO106.12---
BenzeneC6H678.110.879
BenzeneC6H678.11---
Benzoic AcidC7H6O2122.121.266
Benzyl AlcoholC7H8O108.131.045
BromineBr2159.833.119
1,2-ButadieneC4H654.09---
1,3-ButadieneC4H754.09---
n-ButaneC4H1058.12---
n-ButaneC4H1058.12---
IsobutaneC4H1058.12---
IsobutaneC4H1058.12---
1-ButeneC4H856.1---
Calcium CarbideCaC264.12.22
Calcium CarbonateCaCO3100.092.93
Calcium ChlorideCaCl2110.992.152
Calcium HydroxideCa(OH)274.12.24
Calcium OxideCaO56.083.32
Calcium PhosphateCa3(PO4)2310.193.14
Calcium SilicateCaSiO3116.172.915
Calcium SulfateCaSO4136.152.96
Calcium SulfateCaSO4136.15---
Calcium Sulfate-gypsumCaSO4▪2H2O172.182.32
CarbonC12.012.26
Carbon DioxideCO244.01---
Carbon DioxideCO244.01---
Carbon DisulfideCS276.141.261
Carbon DisulfideCS276.14---
Carbon MonoxideCO28.01---
Carbon TetrachlorideCCl4153.841.595
Carbon TetrachlorideCCl4153.84---
ChlorineCl270.91---
ChlorobenzeneC6H5Cl112.561.107
ChloroethaneC2H5ClSee Ethyl Chloride 
ChloroformCHCl3119.391.489
CopperCu63.548.92
Cupric SulfateCuSO4159.613.606
Cupric SulfateCuSO4159.61---
CyclohexaneC6H1284.160.779
CyclohexaneC6H1284.16---
CyclopentaneC5H1070.13---
n-DecaneC10H22142.280.73
n-DecaneC10H22142.28---
Diethyl Ether(C2H5)2O74.120.708
EthaneC2H630.07---
Ethyl AcetateC4H8O288.10.901
Ethyl AcetateC4H8O288.1---
EthanolC2H5OH46.070.789
EthanolC2H5OH46.07---
Ethyl BenzeneC8H10106.160.867
Ethyl BenzeneC8H10106.16---
Ethyl BromideC2H5Br108.981.46
Ethyl ChlorideC2H5Cl64.520.903
3-Ethyl HexaneC8H18114.220.717
3-Ethyl HexaneC8H18114.22---
EthyleneC2H428.05---
Ethylene GlycolC2H6O262.071.113
Ethylene GlycolC2H6O262.07---
Ferric OxideFe2O3159.75.12
Ferrous OxideFeO71.855.7
Ferrous SulfideFeS87.924.84
FormaldehydeH2CO30.030.815
Formic AcidCH2O246.031.22
Formic AcidCH2O246.03---
GlycerolC3H8O392.091.26
HeliumHe4---
n-HeptaneC7H16100.20.684
n-HeptaneC7H16100.2---
n-HexaneC6H1486.170.659
n-HexaneC6H1486.17---
HydrogenH22.016---
Hydrogen BromideHBr80.92---
Hydrogen ChlorideHCl36,47---
Hydrogen CyanideHCN27.03---
Hydrogen FluorideHF20---
Hydrogen FluorideHF20---
Hydrogen SulfideH2S34.08---
IodineI2253.84.93
IronFe55.857.7
LeadPb207.2111.337
Lead OxidePbO223.219.5
MagnesiumMg24.321.74
Magnesium ChlorideMgCl295.232.325
Magnesium HydroxideMg(OH)258.342.4
Magnesium OxideMgO40.323.65
MercuryHg200.6113.546
MethaneCH416.04---
Methyl AcetateC3H6O274.080.933
MethanolCH3OH32.040.792
MethanolCH3OH32.04---
Methyl AmineCH5N31.060.699
Methyl ChlorideCH3Cl50.49---
Methyl Ethyl KetoneC4H8O72.10.805
NaphthaleneC10H8128.161.145
NickelNi58.698.9
Nitric AcidHNO363.021.502
Nitric AcidHNO363.02---
NitrobenzeneC6H5O2N123.111.203
NitrogenN228.02---
Nitrogen DioxideNO246.01---
Nitric OxideNO30.01---
Nitrogen PentoxideN2O5108.021.63
Nitrogen TetraoxideN2O4921.448
Nitrous OxideN2O44.021.226
n-NonaneC9H20128.250.718
n-NonaneC9H20128.25---
n-OctaneC8H18114.220.703
n-OctaneC8H18114.22---
Oxalic AcidC2H2O490.041.9
OxygenO232---
n-PentaneC5H1272.150.63
n-PentaneC5H1272.15---
IsopentaneC5H1272.150.62
IsopentaneC5H1272.15---
1-PenteneC5H1070.130.641
PhenolC6H5OH94.111.071
PhenolC6H5OH94.11---
Phosphoric AcidH3PO4981.834
Phosphoric AcidH3PO498---
Phosphorus(red)P4123.92.2
Phosphorus(red)P4123.9---
Phosphorus(white)P4123.91.82
Phosphorus PentoxideP2O5141.952.387
PropaneC3H844.09---
PropaneC3H844.09---
PropyleneC3H642.08---
n-Propyl AlcoholC3H7OH60.090.804
n-Propyl AlcoholC3H7OH60.09---
Isopropyl AlcoholC3H7OH60.090.785
n-PropylBenzeneC9H12120.190.862
n-PropylBenzeneC9H12120.190.862
Silicon DioxideSiO260.092.25
Sodium BicarbonateNaHCO384.012.2
Sodium BisulfateNaHSO4120.072.742
Sodium CarbonateNa2CO3105.992.533
Sodium ChlorideNaCl58.452.163
Sodium CyanideNaCN49.01---
Sodium HydroxideNaOH402.13
Sodium HydroxideNaOH40---
Sodium NitrateNaNO3852.257
Sodium NitriteNaNO2692.168
Sodium SulfateNa2SO4142.052.698
Sodium SulfideNa2S78.051.856
Sodium SulfiteNa2SO3126.052.633
Sodium ThiosulfateNa2S2O3158.111.667
Sulfur(rhombic)S8256.532.07
Sulfur(monoclinic)S8256.531.96
Sulfur DioxideSO264.07---
Sulfur TrioxideSO380.07---
Sulfuric AcidH2SO498.081.834
Sulfuric AcidH2SO498.08---
TolueneC7H892.130.866
TolueneC7H892.13---
WaterH2O18.0161
WaterH2O18.016---
m-XyleneC8H10106.160.864
m-XyleneC8H10106.16---
o-XyleneC8H10106.160.88
o-XyleneC8H10106.16---
p-XyleneC8H10106.160.861
p-XyleneC8H10106.16---
ZincZn65.387.14
Table 9.5.2: Physical properties for many common components 2.
ComponentTm ºCΔhm(Tm) kJ/molTv ºCΔhv(Tv) kJ/molTc KPc (atm)
Acetaldehyde-123.7---20.225.1461.0---
Acetic Acid16.612.09118.224.39594.857.1
Acetic Acid------------------
Acetone-955.695630.250847
Acetone------------------
Acetylene-------81.517.6309.561.6
Ammonia-77.85.653-33.4323.351405.5111.3
Ammonia------------------
Ammonium Hydroxide------------------
Ammonium Nitrate169.65.4Decomposes at 210 ºC
Ammonium Nitrate------------------
Ammonium Sulfate513---Decomposes at 513 ºC
Ammonium Sulfate------------------
Aniline-6.3---184.2---699.052.4
Benzaldehyde-26---17938.4------
Benzaldehyde------------------
Benzene5.539.83780.130.765562.648.6
Benzene------------------
Benzoic Acid122.2---249.8---------
Benzyl Alcohol-15.4---205.2---------
Bromine-7.410.858.631584.0102
1,2-Butadiene-136.5---10.1---446.0---
1,3-Butadiene-109.1----4.6---425.042.7
n-Butane-138.34.661-0.622.305425.237.47
n-Butane------------------
Isobutane-159.64.54-11.721.292408.136
Isobutane------------------
1-Butene-185.33.848-6.321.916419.639.7
Calcium Carbide2300---------------
Calcium Carbonate

Decomposes at 8825 ºC

Decomposes at 8825 ºC-1206.9
CalciumCholride78228.37>1600---------
Calcium Hydroxide

(-H2O at 580 ºC)

(-H2O at 580 ºC)
Calcium Oxide2570502850---------
Calcium Phosphate1670---------------
Calcium Silicate153048.62------------
Calcium Sulfate------------------
Calcium Sulfate------------------
Calcium Sulfate-gypsum------(-1.5 H2O at 128 ºC)------
Carbon3600464200---------
Carbon Dioxide-56.68.33-78(Sublimes @)304.272.9
Carbon Dioxide------------------
Carbon Disulfide-112.14.3946.2526.855278
Carbon Disulfide------------------
Carbon Monoxide-205.10.837-191.56.02413334.5
Carbon Tetrachloride-22.92.5176.730556.445
Carbon Tetrachloride------------------
Chlorine-1016.406-34.0620.441776.1
Chlorobenzene-45---132.136.5632.444.6
Chloroethane      
Chloroform-63.7---61---53654
Copper108313.012595304.6------
Cupric Sulfate

Decomposes > 600ºC

Decomposes > 600ºC
Cupric Sulfate------------------
Cyclohexane6.72.67780.730.1553.740.4
Cyclohexane------------------
Cyclopentane-93.40.60949.327.3511.844.55
Cyclopentane------------------
n-Decane-29.9---173.8---61920.8
n-Decane------------------
Diethyl Ether-116.37.334.626.0546735.6
Ethane-183.32.859-88.614.72305.448.2
Ethyl Acetate-83.8---77523.137.8---
Ethyl Acetate------------------
Ethanol-114.65.02178.538.58516.363
Ethanol------------------
Ethyl Benzene-94.679.163136.235.98619.737
Ethyl Benzene------------------
Ethyl Bromide-119.1---38.2---50461.5
Ethyl Chloride-138.34.45213.124.7460.452
3-Ethyl Hexane------118.534.2756726.4
3-Ethyl Hexane------------------
Ethylene-169.23.35-103.713.54283.150.5
Ethylene Glycol-1311.23197.256.9------
Ethylene Glycol------------------
Ferric Oxide

Decomposes at 1560 ºC

Decomposes at 1560 ºC
Ferrous Oxide------------------
Ferrous Sulfide1193---------------
Formaldehyde-92----19.324.48------
Formic Acid8.312.68100.522.25------
Formic Acid------------------
Glycerol18.218.3290---------
Helium-269.70.02-268.90.0845.262.26
n-Heptane-90.5914.0398.4331.69540.227
n-Heptane------------------
n-Hexane-95.3213.0368.7428.85507.929.9
n-Hexane------------------
Hydrogen-259.190.12-252.760.90433.312.8
Hydrogen Bromide-86----67---------
Hydrogen Chloride-114.21.99-8516.1324.681.5
Hydrogen Cyanide-14---26---------
Hydrogen Fluoride-83---20---503.2---
Hydrogen Fluoride------------------
Hydrogen Sulfide-85.52.38-60.318.67373.688.9
Iodine113.3---184.2---826---
Iron153515.12800354------
Lead327.45.11750179.9------
Lead Oxide88611.71472213------
Magnesium6509.21120131.8------
MagnesiumChloride71443.11418136.8------
MagnesiumHydroxide

Decomposes at 350 ºC

Decomposes at 350 ºC------
MagnesiumOxide290077.43600---------
Mercury-38.87----356.9---------
Methane-182.50.94-161.58.179190.745.8
Methyl Acetate-98.9---57.1---506.746.3
Methanol-97.93.16764.735.27513.278.5
Methanol------------------
Methyl Amine-92.7----6.9---429.973.6
MethylChloride-97.9----24---416.165.8
Methyl Ethyl Ketone-87.1---78.232------
Naphthalene80---217.8---------
Nickel1452---2900---------
Nitric Acid-41.610.478630.3------
Nitric Acid------------------
Nitrobenzene5.5---210.7---------
Nitrogen-2100.72-195.85.577126.233.5
Nitrogen Dioxide-9.37.33521.314.73431100
Nitric Oxide-163.62.301-151.813.78179.265
Nitrogen Pentoxide30---47---------
Nitrogen Tetraoxide-9.5---21.1---43199
Nitrous Oxide-91.1----88.8---309.571.7
n-Nonane-53.8---150.6---59523
n-Nonane------------------
n-Octane-57---125.5---568.824.5
n-Octane------------------
Oxalic Acid

Decomposes at 186 ºC

Decomposes at 186 ºC------
Oxygen-218.750.444-182.976.82154.449.7
n-Pentane-129.68.39336.0725.77469.833.3
n-Pentane------------------
Isopentane-160.1---27.7---46132.9
Isopentane------------------
1-Pentene-165.24.9429.97---47439.9
Phenol42.511.43181.4---692.160.5
Phenol------------------
Phosphoric Acid42.310.54(-1/2 H2O at 213 ºC)------
Phosphoric Acid------------------
Phosphorus(red)59081.71Ignites in air, 725 ºC  
Phosphorus(red)------------------
Phosphorus(white)44.22.5128049.71------
Phosphorus Pentoxide

Sublimes at 250 ºC

Sublimes at 250 ºC

------
Propane-187.693.52-42.0718.77369.942
Propane------------------
Propylene-185.2347.718.42365.145.4
n-Propyl Alcohol-127---97.04---536.749.95
n-Propyl Alcohol------------------
Isopropyl Alcohol-89.7---82.24---508.853
n-PropylBenzene-99.58.54159.238.24638.731.3
n-PropylBenzene------------------
Silicon Dioxide171014.22230---------
Sodium Bicarbonate

Decomposes at 270 ºC

 ------
Sodium Bisulfate------------------
Sodium CarbonateDecomposes at 854 ºC ------
Sodium Chloride80828.51465170.7------
Sodium Cyanide56216.71497155------
Sodium Hydroxide3198.341390---------
Sodium Hydroxide------------------
Sodium Nitrate31015.9Decomposes at 380 ºC---
Sodium Nitrite271---Decomposes at 320 ºC---
Sodium Sulfate89024.3------------
Sodium Sulfide9506.7------------
Sodium SulfiteDecomposesDecomposes------
Sodium Thiosulfate------------------
Sulfur(rhombic)11310.04444.683.7------
Sulfur(monoclinic)11914.17444.683.7------
Sulfur Dioxide-75.487.402-10.0224.91430.777.8
Sulfur Trioxide16.8425.4843.341.8491.483.8
Sulfuric Acid10.359.87---Decomposes at 340 ºC
Sulfuric Acid------------------
Toluene-94.996.619110.6233.47593.940.3
Toluene------------------
Water06.009510040.656647.4218.3
Water------------------
m-Xylene-47.8711.569139.136.461934.6
m-Xylene------------------
o-Xylene-25.1813.598144.4236.82631.535.7
o-Xylene------------------
p-Xylene13.2617.11138.3536.0761833.9
p-Xylene------------------
Zinc419.56.674907114.77------
Table 9.5.3: Physical properties for many common components 3.
ComponentΔhof kJ/molPhase of formationΔhoc kJ/molPhase of combustion
Acetaldehyde-166.2gas-1192.4gas
Acetic Acid-486.2liquid-871.7liquid
Acetic Acid-438.15gas-919.73gas
Acetone-248.2liquid-1785.7liquid
Acetone-216.7gas-1821.4gas
Acetylene226.8gas-1299.6gas
Ammonia-67.2liquid------
Ammonia-46.2gas-382.6gas
Ammonium Hydroxide-366.48aqueous------
Ammonium Nitrate-365.14solid------
Ammonium Nitrate-399.36aqueous------
Ammonium Sulfate-1179.3solid------
Ammonium Sulfate-1173.1aqueous------
Aniline------------
Benzaldehyde-88.83liquid-3520liquid
Benzaldehyde-40.04gas------
Benzene48.66liquid-3267.6liquid
Benzene82.93gas-3301.5gas
Benzoic Acid-------3226.7gas
Benzyl Alcohol-------3741.8liquid
Bromine0liquid------
1,2-Butadiene------------
1,3-Butadiene------------
n-Butane-147liquid-2855.6liquid
n-Butane-124.7gas-2878.5gas
Isobutane-158.4liquid-2849liquid
Isobutane-134.5gas-2868.8gas
1-Butene1.17gas-2718.6gas
Calcium Carbide-62.76solid------
Calcium Carbonatesolid------2.93
CalciumCholride-794.96solid------
Calcium Hydroxide-986.59solid------
Calcium Oxide-635.6solid------
Calcium Phosphate-4138solid------
Calcium Silicate-1584solid------
Calcium Sulfate-1432.7solid------
Calcium Sulfate-1450.4aqueous------
Calcium Sulfate-gypsum-2021solid------
Carbon0solid-393.51solid
Carbon Dioxide-412.9liquid------
Carbon Dioxide-393.5gas------
Carbon Disulfide87.9liquid-1075.2liquid
Carbon Disulfide115.3gas1102.6gas
Carbon Monoxide-110.52gas-282.99gas
Carbon Tetrachloride-139.5liquid-352.2liquid
Carbon Tetrachloride-106.7gas-385gas
Chlorine0gas------
Chlorobenzene------------
Chloroethane --- ---
Chloroform-131.8liquid-373liquid
Copper0solid------
Cupric Sulfate-769.9solid------
Cupric Sulfate-843.1aqueous------
Cyclohexane-156.2liquid-3919.9liquid
Cyclohexane-123.1gas-3953gas
Cyclopentane-105.9liquid-3290.9liquid
Cyclopentane-77.2gas-3319.5gas
n-Decane-249.7liquid-6778.3liquid
n-Decane-------6829.7gas
Diethyl Ether-272.8liquid-2726.7liquid
Ethane-84.67gas-1559.9gas
Ethyl Acetate-463.2liquid-2246.4liquid
Ethyl Acetate-426.8gas------
Ethanol-277.63liquid-1366.91liquid
Ethanol-235.31gas-1409.25gas
Ethyl Benzene-12.46liquid-4564.9liquid
Ethyl Benzene29.79gas-4607.1gas
Ethyl Bromide-54.4gas------
Ethyl Chloride-105gas------
3-Ethyl Hexane-250.5liquid-5407.1liquid
3-Ethyl Hexane-210.9gas-5509.8gas
Ethylene52.28gas-1410.99gas
Ethylene Glycol-451.5liquid-1179.5liquid
Ethylene Glycol-387.1gas------
Ferric Oxide-822.2solid------
Ferrous Oxide-266.5solid------
Ferrous Sulfide-95.1solid------
Formaldehyde-115.9gas-563.46gas
Formic Acid-409.2liquid-262.8liquid
Formic Acid-362.6gas------
Glycerol-665.9liquid-1661.1liquid
Helium0gas------
n-Heptane-224.4liquid-4816.9liquid
n-Heptane-187.8gas-4853.5gas
n-Hexane-198.8liquid-4163.1liquid
n-Hexane-167.2gas-4194.8gas
Hydrogen0gas-285.84gas
Hydrogen Bromide-36.23gas------
Hydrogen Chloride-92.31gas------
Hydrogen Cyanide130.54gas------
Hydrogen Fluoride-268.6gas------
Hydrogen Fluoride-316.9aqueous------
Hydrogen Sulfide-19.96gas-562.59gas
Iodine0solid------
Iron0solid------
Lead0solid------
Lead Oxide------------
Magnesium0solid------
Magnesium Chloride------------
Magnesium Hydroxide------------
Magnesium Oxide-601.8solid------
Mercury0solid------
Methane-74.85gas-890.36gas
Methyl Acetate-409.4liquid-1595liquid
Methanol-238.6liquid726.6liquid
Methanol-201.2gas-764gas
Methyl Amine-28gas-1071.5liquid
Methyl Chloride-81.92gas------
Methyl Ethyl Ketone-------2436liquid
Naphthalene-------5157gas
Nickel0solid------
Nitric Acid-173.23liquid------
Nitric Acid-205.57aqueous------
Nitrobenzene-------3092.8liquid
Nitrogen0gas------
Nitrogen Dioxide33.8gas------
Nitric Oxide90.37gas------
Nitrogen Pentoxide------------
Nitrogen Tetraoxide9.3gas------
Nitrous Oxide81.5gas------
n-Nonane-229liquid-6124.5liquid
n-Nonane-------6171gas
n-Octane-249.9liquid-5470.7liquid
n-Octane-208.4gas-5512.2gas
Oxalic Acid-826.8solid-251.9---
Oxygen0gas------
n-Pentane-173liquid-3509.5liquid
n-Pentane-146.4gas-3536.1gas
Isopentane-179.3liquid-3507.5liquid
Isopentane-152gas-3529.2gas
1-Pentene-20.9gas-3375.8gas
Phenol-158.1liquid-3063.5---
Phenol-90.8gas------
Phosphoric Acid-1281.1solid------
Phosphoric Acid-1278.6aqueous, 1 H2O------
Phosphorus(red)-17.6solid------
Phosphorus(red)0solid------
Phosphorus(white)------------
Phosphorus Pentoxide-1506.2solid------
Propane-119.8liquid-2204liquid
Propane-103.8gas-2220gas
Propylene20.41gas-2058.4gas
n-Propyl Alcohol-300.7liquid-2010.4liquid
n-Propyl Alcohol-255.2gas-2068.6gas
Isopropyl Alcohol-310.9liquid-1986.6liquid
n-Propyl Benzene-38.4liquid-5218.2liquid
n-Propyl Benzene7.82gas-5264.48gas
Silicon Dioxide-851solid------
Sodium Bicarbonate-945.6solid------
Sodium Bisulfate-1126.3solid------
Sodium Carbonate-1130.9solid------
Sodium Chloride-411solid------
Sodium Cyanide-89.79solid------
Sodium Hydroxide-426.6solid------
Sodium Hydroxide-469.4aqueous------
Sodium Nitrate-466.7solid------
Sodium Nitrite-359.4solid------
Sodium Sulfate-1384.5solid------
Sodium Sulfide-373.3solid------
Sodium Sulfite-1090.3solid------
Sodium Thiosulfate-1117.1solid------
Sulfur(rhombic)0solid------
Sulfur(monoclinic)0.3solid------
Sulfur Dioxide-296.9gas------
Sulfur Trioxide-395.18gas------
Sulfuric Acid-811.32liquid------
Sulfuric Acid-907.51aqueous------
Toluene12liquid-3909.9liquid
Toluene50gas-3947.9gas
Water-285.84liquid------
Water-241.83gas------
m-Xylene-25.42liquid-4551.9liquid
m-Xylene17.24gas-4594.5gas
o-Xylene24.44liquid-4552.9liquid
o-Xylene18.99gas-4596.3gas
p-Xylene24.43liquid-4552.9liquid
p-Xylene17.95gas-4595.2gas
Zinc0solid------

Section 9.6 - Properties of subcooled liquid water

The properties of subcooled liquid water include: specific volume, specific internal energy, specific enthalpy, and specific entropy. The reference state is uf = 0.00 at 0.01°C and sf = 0.00 at 0.01°C. The table is divided into sections by pressure. The tables are divided into different parts to ease use on a tablet or phone.

Table 1: P = 10 kPa to 1000 kPa

Table 2: P = 2500 kPa to 20000 kPa

Table 9.6.1: Subcooled liquid water table 1.
T vuhs
°C m3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 10 kPa Tsat = 45.806°C
Sat.0.0010103191.80191.810.64920
80
60
400.0010079167.53167.540.57240
200.001001883.91183.9210.29648
100.00100042.02042.0300.15109
50.00100021.01921.0290.076254
2 0.0010008.39128.40120.030608
P = 50 kPa Tsat = 81.317°C
Sat.0.001030340.49340.541.0912
800.0010291334.96335.011.0756
600.0010171251.15251.210.83128
400.0010079167.52167.570.57239
200.001001883.90983.9590.29647
100.00100042.01942.0690.15108
50.00100021.01921.0690.076253
2 0.0010008.39158.44150.030609
P = 100 kPa Tsat = 99.606 °C
Sat.0.0010432417.40417.501.3028
800.001029334.95335.051.0755
600.0010171251.15251.250.83125
400.0010078167.51167.620.57237
200.001001883.90684.0060.29646
100.00100042.01842.1180.15108
50.00100021.01921.1190.076252
2 0.0010008.39208.49200.03061
T vuhs
°C m3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 250 kPa Tsat = 127.41°C
Sat.0.0010672535.08535.341.6072
175
150
1250.0010649524.82525.091.5815
1000.0010434419.02419.281.3071
500.001012209.29209.550.70370
250.0010029104.81105.060.36716
5 0.00100021.01821.2680.07625
P = 500 kPa Tsat= 151.83°C
Sat.0.0010925639.54640.091.8604
175
1500.0010905631.65632.191.8418
1250.0010648524.73525.261.5813
1000.0010433418.94419.471.3069
500.0010119209.26209.760.70358
250.0010028104.79105.290.3671
5 0.00100021.01721.5170.076246
P = 1000 kPa Tsat= 179.88°C
Sat.0.0011272761.39762.522.1381
1750.0011206739.96741.082.0905
1500.001090631.41632.501.8412
1250.0010645524.54525.601.5808
1000.001043418.80419.841.3065
500.0010117209.18210.190.70335
250.0010026104.75105.750.36697
5 0.00100021.01522.0140.076237
Table 9.6.2: Subcooled liquid water table part 2.
T vuhs
°C m3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 2500 kPa Tsat= 223.95°C
Sat.0.0011974958.91961.912.5543
275
250
2000.0011556849.76852.652.3290
1500.0010891630.71633.431.8395
1000.0010422418.36420.971.3053
500.001011208.96211.490.70266
25 0.0010019104.63107.140.36658
P = 5000 kPa Tsat = 263.94°C
Sat.0.00128641148.21154.62.9210
275
2500.0012501079.51085.72.7910
2000.0011531847.91853.682.3251
1500.0010875629.55834.981.8368
1000.001041417.64422.851.3034
500.001010208.59213.640.7015
25 0.0010008104.44109.450.36592
P = 7500 kPa Tsat = 290.54°C
Sat.0.00136821282.71292.93.1662
2750.00131341200.41210.23.0174
2500.00124541076.41085.72.7851
2000.0011506846.10854.732.3212
1500.0010858628.40636.541.8341
1000.001040416.93424.731.3015
500.0010088208.22215.790.70035
25 0.001000104.25111.750.36526
P = 10000 kPa Tsat = 311.00°C
Sat.0.00145261393.51408.13.3606
350
3000.0013981329.41343.33.2488
2500.00124121073.41085.82.7792
2000.0011482844.31855.802.3174
1000.0010385416.23426.621.2996
500.0010078207.86217.940.6992
25 0.00099854104.06114.050.3646
P =15000 kPa Tsat= 342.16°C
Sat.0.0016571585.31610.23.6846
350
3000.00137831317.61338.33.2279
2500.0012331067.61086.12.7680
2000.0011435840.84857.992.3100
1000.0010361414.85430.391.2958
500.0010056207.15222.230.6969
25 0.00099635103.69118.630.36325
P = 20000 kPa Tsat = 365.75°C
Sat.0.0020401786.41827.24.0156
3500.00166491612.71646.03.7290
3000.00136111307.11334.43.2091
2500.00122541062.21086.72.7573
2000.001139837.49860.272.3027
1000.0010337413.50434.171.2920
500.0010035206.44226.510.69461
25 0.00099419103.32123.200.36187

Section 9.7 - Saturated water - temperature table

Reference state: uf = 0.00 at 0.01°C and sf = 0.00 at 0.01°C.

Table 1: Specific volume (v) and specific internal energy (u)

Table 2: Specific enthalpy (h) and specific entropy (s)

Table 9.7.1: Saturated water - temperature table 1.
VolumeInternal Energy
m3/kgkJ/kg
Sat.Sat.Sat.Sat.
LiquidVaporLiquidVaporΔu
T, °CPsat, kPavf vg ufugufg
0.010.6120.001000205.990.0002374.92374.9
50.8730.001000147.0121.0192381.82360.8
101.2280.001000106.3042.0202388.62346.6
151.7060.00100177.87562.9802395.52332.5
202.3390.00100257.757 83.9122402.32318.4
253.1700.00100343.337104.832409.12304.3
304.2470.00100432.878125.732415.92290.2
355.6290.00100625.205146.632422.72276.1
407.3850.00100819.515167.532429.42261.9
459.5950.00101015.252 188.432436.12247.7
5012.3520.00101212.027209.332442.72233.4
5515.7620.0010159.5643230.242449.32219.1
6019.9460.0010177.6672251.162455.92204.7
6525.0420.0010206.1935272.092462.42190.3
7031.2010.0010235.0395 293.032468.92175.9
7538.5950.0010264.1289313.992475.22161.2
8047.4140.0010293.4052334.962481.62146.6
8557.8670.0010322.8258355.952487.82131.9
9070.1820.0010362.3591376.972494.02117.0
9584.6080.0010401.9806 398.002500.02102.0
100101.420.0010441.6718419.062506.02086.9
105120.900.0010471.4184440.152511.92071.8
110143.380.0010521.2093461.262517.72056.4
115169.180.0010561.0358482.412523.32040.9
120198.670.0010600.89121 503.602528.92025.3
125232.240.0010650.77003524.832534.32009.5
130270.280.0010700.66800546.092539.51993.4
135313.230.0010750.58173567.412544.71977.3
140361.540.0010800.50845588.772549.61960.8
145415.680.0010850.44596 610.192554.41944.2
150476.160.0010910.39245631.662559.11927.4
155543.500.0010960.34646653.192563.51910.3
160618.230.0011020.30678674.792567.81893.0
165700.930.0011080.27243696.462571.91875.4
170792.190.0011140.24259 718.202575.71857.5
175892.600.0011210.21658740.022579.41839.4
1801,002.800.0011270.19384761.922582.81820.9
1851,123.500.0011340.17390783.912586.01802.1
1901,255.200.0011420.15636806.002589.01783.0
1951,398.800.0011490.14089 828.182591.71763.5
2001,554.900.0011570.12721850.472594.21743.7
2051,724.300.0011650.11508872.872596.41723.5
2101,907.700.0011730.10429895.392598.31702.9
2152,105.800.0011810.094679918.042599.91681.9
2202,319.600.0011900.086092 940.822601.21660.4
2252,549.700.0011990.078403963.742602.21638.5
2302,797.100.0012090.071503986.812602.91616.1
2353,062.500.0012190.0652981010.02603.21593.2
2403,346.900.0012300.0597051033.42603.11569.7
2453,651.200.0012400.054654 1057.02602.71545.7
2503,976.200.0012520.0500831080.82601.81521.0
2554,322.900.0012640.0459381104.82600.51495.7
2604,692.300.0012760.0421731129.02598.71469.7
2655,085.300.0012890.0387461153.42596.51443.1
2705,503.000.0013030.035621 1178.12593.71415.6
2755,946.400.0013180.0327661203.12590.31387.2
2806,416.600.0013330.0301531228.32586.41358.1
2856,914.700.0013490.0277561253.92581.81327.9
2907,441.800.0013660.0255551279.92576.51296.6
2957,999.100.0013850.023529 1306.22570.51264.3
3008,587.900.0014040.0216601332.92563.61230.7
3059,209.400.0014250.0199331360.22555.91195.7
3109,865.100.0014480.0183351387.92547.11159.2
31510,5560.0014720.0168511416.32537.21120.9
32011,2840.0014990.015471 1445.32526.01080.7
32512,0510.0015280.0141831475.12513.41038.3
33012,8580.0015610.0129791505.82499.2993.4
33513,7070.0015970.0118471537.62483.0945.4
34014,6010.0016380.0107811570.62464.4893.8
34515,5410.0016850.009769 1605.32443.1837.8
35016,5290.001740.0088021642.12418.1776.0
35517,5700.0018080.0078681682.02388.4706.4
36018,6660.0018950.0069491726.32351.8625.5
36519,8210.0020170.0060121777.82303.8526.0
37021,0440.0022150.004954 1844.12230.3386.2
373.94622,0640.0031060.0031062015.72015.70.0
Table 9.7.2: Saturated water - temperature table 2.
EnthalpyEntropy
kJ/kgkJ/kg•K
Sat.Sat.Sat.Sat.
LiquidVaporΔhLiquidVaporΔs
T, °CPsat, kPahfhghfg sfsgsfg
0.010.6120.0012500.92500.90.00009.15559.1555
50.87321.0202510.12489.10.07639.02488.9485
101.22842.0212519.22477.20.15118.89988.7487
151.70662.9812528.32465.30.22458.78038.5558
202.33983.9142537.42453.5 0.29658.66608.3695
253.170104.832546.52441.70.36728.55668.1894
304.247125.732555.52429.80.43688.45208.0153
355.629146.632564.52417.90.50518.35177.8466
407.385167.532573.52406.00.57248.25557.6831
459.595188.432582.42394.0 0.63868.16337.5247
5012.352209.342591.32382.00.70388.07487.3710
5515.762230.262600.12369.80.76807.98987.2218
6019.946251.182608.82357.60.83137.90817.0768
6525.042272.122617.52345.40.89377.82966.9360
7031.201293.072626.12333.0 0.95517.75406.7989
7538.595314.032634.62320.61.01587.68126.6654
8047.414335.012643.02308.01.07567.61116.5355
8557.867356.012651.32295.31.13467.54346.4088
9070.182377.042659.52282.51.19297.47816.2852
9584.608398.092667.62269.5 1.25047.41516.1647
100101.42419.172675.62256.41.30727.35416.0469
105120.90440.272683.42243.11.36337.29525.9319
110143.38461.422691.12229.71.41887.23815.8193
115169.18482.592698.62216.01.47377.18285.7091
120198.67503.812705.92202.1 1.52797.12915.6012
125232.24525.072713.12188.01.58167.07705.4954
130270.28546.382720.12173.71.63467.02645.3918
135313.23567.742726.92159.21.68726.97725.2900
140361.54589.162733.42144.21.73926.92935.1901
145415.68610.642739.82129.2 1.79076.88265.0919
150476.16632.182745.92113.71.84186.83714.9953
155543.50653.792751.82098.01.89246.79264.9002
160618.23675.472757.42081.91.94266.74914.8065
165700.93697.242762.82065.61.99236.70664.7143
170792.19719.082767.92048.8 2.04176.66504.6233
175892.60741.022772.72031.72.09066.62414.5335
1801,002.80763.052777.22014.22.13926.58404.4448
1851,123.50785.192781.41996.22.18756.54474.3572
1901,255.20807.432785.31977.92.23556.50594.2704
1951,398.80829.792788.81959.0 2.28326.46784.1846
2001,554.90852.272792.01939.72.33056.43024.0997
2051,724.30874.882794.81919.92.37776.39304.0153
2101,907.70897.632797.31899.72.42456.35633.9318
2152,105.80920.532799.31878.82.47126.32003.8488
2202,319.60943.582800.91857.3 2.51776.28403.7663
2252,549.70966.802802.11835.32.56406.24833.6843
2302,797.10990.192802.91812.72.61016.21283.6027
2353,062.501013.82803.21789.42.65616.17753.5214
2403,346.901037.62803.01765.42.70206.14233.4403
2453,651.201061.52802.21740.7 2.74786.10723.3594
2503,976.201085.82800.91715.12.79356.07213.2786
2554,322.901110.22799.11688.92.83926.03693.1977
2604,692.301135.02796.61661.62.88496.00163.1167
2655,085.301160.02793.51633.52.93075.96613.0354
2705,503.001185.32789.71604.4 2.97655.93042.9539
2755,946.401210.92785.21574.33.02245.89442.8720
2806,416.601236.92779.91543.03.06855.85792.7894
2856,914.701263.22773.71510.53.11475.82092.7062
2907,441.801290.02766.71476.73.16125.78342.6222
2957,999.101317.32758.71441.4 3.20805.74512.5371
3008,587.901345.02749.61404.63.25525.70592.4507
3059,209.401373.32739.41366.13.30285.66572.3629
3109,865.101402.22727.91325.73.35105.62442.2734
31510,5561431.82715.11283.33.39985.58162.1818
32011,2841462.22700.61238.4 3.44945.53722.0878
32512,0511493.52684.31190.83.50005.49081.9908
33012,8581525.92666.01140.13.55185.44221.8904
33513,7071559.52645.41085.93.60505.39061.7856
34014,6011594.52621.81027.33.66015.33561.6755
34515,5411631.52594.9963.4 3.71765.27621.5586
35016,5291670.92563.6892.73.77845.21101.4326
35517,5701713.72526.6812.93.84395.13801.2941
36018,6661761.72481.5719.83.91675.05361.1369
36519,8211817.82422.9605.14.00144.94970.9483
37021,0441890.72334.5443.8 4.11124.80120.6900
373.94622,0642084.32084.30.04.40704.40700.0000

Section 9.8 - Saturated water - pressure table

Reference States: uf = 0.00 at 0.01°C and sf = 0.00 at 0.01°C.

Table 1: Specific volume (v) and specific internal energy (u)

Table 2: Specific enthalpy (h) and specific entropy (s)

Table 9.8.1 Saturated water - pressure table 1.
VolumeInternal Energy
m3/kgkJ/kg
Sat.Sat.Sat.Sat.
LiquidVaporLiquidVaporΔu
P, kPaTsat, °Cvfvg ufugufg
0.61170.010.001000205.990.00002374.92374.9
1.06.970.001000129.1829.2982384.52355.2
1.513.020.00100187.95954.6812392.82338.1
2.017.500.00100166.98773.4262398.92325.5
2.521.080.00100254.240 88.4172403.82315.4
3.024.080.00100345.653100.9702407.92306.9
4.028.960.00100434.791121.382414.52293.1
5.032.870.00100528.185137.742419.82282.1
7.540.290.00100819.233168.742429.82261.1
1045.810.00101014.670 191.802437.22245.4
1553.970.00101410.020225.932448.02222.1
2060.060.0010177.6480251.402456.02204.6
2564.960.0010206.2032271.932462.42190.5
3069.100.0010225.2284289.242467.72178.5
4075.860.0010263.9930 317.582476.32158.7
5081.320.0010303.2400340.492483.22142.7
6085.930.0010332.7317359.842489.02129.2
7089.930.0010362.3648376.682493.92117.2
8093.490.0010392.0871391.632498.22106.6
9096.690.0010411.8694 405.102502.12097.0
10099.610.0010431.6939417.402505.62088.2
101.32599.970.0010431.6734418.952506.02087.1
125105.970.0010481.3749444.222513.02068.8
150111.350.0010531.1593466.972519.22052.2
175116.040.0010571.0036 486.822524.52037.7
200120.210.0010610.88568504.492529.12024.6
225123.970.0010640.79320520.472533.22012.7
250127.410.0010670.71866535.082536.82001.7
275130.580.0010700.65725548.562540.11991.5
300133.520.0010730.60576 561.102543.21982.1
325136.270.0010760.56194572.842545.91973.1
350138.860.0010790.52418583.882548.51964.6
375141.300.0010810.49129594.322550.91956.6
400143.610.0010840.46238604.222553.11948.9
450147.900.0010880.41390 622.652557.11934.5
500151.830.0010930.37481639.542560.71921.2
550155.460.0010970.34260655.162563.91908.7
600158.830.0011010.31558669.722566.81897.1
650161.980.0011040.29259683.362569.41886.0
700164.950.0011080.27277 696.232571.81875.6
750167.750.0011110.25551708.402574.01865.6
800170.410.0011150.24034719.972576.01856.0
850172.940.0011180.22689731.002577.91846.9
900175.350.0011210.21489741.552579.61838.1
950177.660.0011240.20410 751.672581.21829.5
1,000179.880.0011270.19436761.392582.71821.3
1,100184.060.0011330.17745779.782585.51805.7
1,200187.960.0011390.16326796.962587.81790.8
1,300191.600.0011440.15119813.112589.91776.8
1,400195.040.0011490.14078 828.362591.81763.4
1,500198.290.0011540.13171842.832593.41750.6
1,600201.370.0011590.12374856.602594.81738.2
1,700204.310.0011630.11667869.762596.11726.3
1,800207.110.0011680.11037882.372597.21714.8
1,900209.800.0011720.10470 894.482598.21703.7
2,000212.380.0011770.099585906.142599.11693.0
2,250218.410.0011870.088715933.572600.91667.3
2,500223.950.0011970.079949958.912602.11643.2
3,000233.850.0012170.0666641004.72603.21598.5
3,500242.560.0012350.057058 1045.52602.91557.4
4,000250.350.0012530.0497761082.52601.71519.2
5,000263.940.0012860.0394461148.22597.01448.8
6,000275.580.0013190.0324481206.02589.91383.9
7,000285.830.0013520.0273781258.22581.01322.8
8,000295.010.0013850.023526 1306.22570.51264.3
9,000303.340.0014180.0204901351.12558.51207.4
10,000311.000.0014530.0180301393.52545.21151.7
11,000318.080.0014890.0159901434.12530.51096.4
12,000324.680.0015260.0142641473.12514.31041.2
13,000330.850.0015670.012780 1511.12496.5985.4
14,000336.670.0016100.0114851548.42477.1928.7
15,000342.160.0016570.0103381585.32455.6870.3
17,000352.290.0017690.00837091659.92405.2745.3
19,000361.470.0019270.00667731740.52339.1598.6
20,000365.750.0020400.0058652 1786.42295.0508.6
21,000369.830.0022060.00499611841.22233.7392.5
22,064373.950.0031060.0031062015.72015.70.0
Table 9.8.2 Saturated water - pressure table 2.
EnthalpyEntropy
kJ/kgkJ/kg•K
Sat.Sat.Sat.Sat.
LiquidVaporΔhLiquidVaporΔs
P, kPaTsat, °Chfhghfg sfsgsfg
0.61170.010.000611782500.92500.90.00009.15559.1555
1.06.9729.2992513.72484.40.105918.97498.8690
1.513.0254.6832524.72470.00.195568.82708.6314
2.017.5073.4282532.92459.50.260568.72268.4620
2.521.0888.4202539.42451.0 0.311828.64208.3302
3.024.08100.9802544.82443.80.354298.57648.2221
4.028.96121.392553.72432.30.422398.47348.0510
5.032.87137.752560.72423.00.476208.39387.9176
7.540.29168.752574.02405.30.576278.25017.6738
1045.81191.812583.92392.1 0.649208.14887.4996
1553.97225.942598.32372.40.754868.00717.2522
2060.06251.422608.92357.50.832027.90727.0752
2564.96271.962617.42345.40.893197.83026.9370
3069.10289.272624.52335.20.944077.76756.8234
4075.86317.622636.12318.5 1.02617.66906.6429
5081.32340.542645.22304.71.09127.59306.5018
6085.93359.912652.92293.01.14547.53116.3857
7089.93376.752659.42282.71.19217.47906.2869
8093.49391.712665.22273.51.23307.43396.2009
9096.69405.202670.32265.1 1.26967.39436.1247
10099.61417.502674.92257.41.30287.35886.0560
101.32599.97419.062675.62256.51.30697.35456.0476
125105.97444.352684.92240.61.37417.28405.9099
150111.35467.132693.12226.01.43377.22305.7893
175116.04487.002700.12213.1 1.48507.17155.6865
200120.21504.702706.22201.51.53027.12695.5967
225123.97520.712711.62190.91.57067.08765.5170
250127.41535.342716.52181.21.60727.05245.4452
275130.58548.862720.92172.01.64087.02075.3799
300133.52561.432724.92163.5 1.67176.99165.3199
325136.27573.192728.62155.41.70056.96495.2644
350138.86584.262732.02147.71.72746.94015.2127
375141.30594.732735.12140.41.75266.91715.1645
400143.61604.652738.12133.51.77656.89555.1190
450147.90623.142743.42120.3 1.82056.85605.0355
500151.83640.092748.12108.01.86046.82074.9603
550155.46655.762752.32096.51.89706.78864.8916
600158.83670.382756.12085.71.93086.75924.8284
650161.98684.082759.62075.51.96236.73224.7699
700164.95697.002762.82065.8 1.99186.70714.7153
750167.75709.242765.62056.42.01956.68364.6641
800170.41720.862768.32047.42.04576.66164.6159
850172.94731.952770.82038.92.07056.64094.5704
900175.35742.562773.02030.42.09406.62134.5273
950177.66752.742775.12022.4 2.11656.60274.4862
1,000179.88762.522777.12014.62.13816.58504.4469
1,100184.06781.032780.61999.62.17856.55204.3735
1,200187.96798.332783.71985.42.21596.52174.3058
1,300191.60814.602786.51971.92.25086.49364.2428
1,400195.04829.972788.81958.8 2.28356.46754.1840
1,500198.29844.562791.01946.42.31436.44304.1287
1,600201.37858.462792.81934.32.34356.41994.0764
1,700204.31871.742794.51922.82.37116.39814.0270
1,800207.11884.472795.91911.42.39756.37753.9800
1,900209.80896.712797.21900.5 2.42276.35783.9351
2,000212.38908.502798.31889.82.44686.33903.8922
2,250218.41936.242800.51864.32.50296.29543.7925
2,500 223.95 961.91 2801.9 1840.0 2.5543 6.2558 3.7015
3,000 233.85 1008.3 2803.2 1794.9 2.6455 6.1856 3.5401
3,500 242.56 1049.8 2802.6 1752.8 2.7254 6.1243 3.3989
4,000 250.35 1087.5 2800.8 1713.3 2.7968 6.0696 3.2728
5,000 263.94 1154.6 2794.2 1639.6 2.9210 5.9737 3.0527
6,000 275.58 1213.9 2784.6 1570.7 3.0278 5.8901 2.8623
7,000 285.83 1267.7 2772.6 1504.9 3.1224 5.8148 2.6924
8,000 295.01 1317.3 2758.7 1441.4 3.2081 5.7450 2.5369
9,000 303.34 1363.9 2742.9 1379.0 3.2870 5.6791 2.3921
10,000 311.00 1408.1 2725.5 1317.4 3.3606 5.6160 2.2554
11,000 318.08 1450.4 2706.3 1255.9 3.4303 5.5545 2.1242
12,000 324.68 1491.5 2685.4 1193.9 3.4967 5.4939 1.9972
13,000 330.85 1531.5 2662.7 1131.2 3.5608 5.4336 1.8728
14,000 336.67 1571.0 2637.9 1066.9 3.6232 5.3727 1.7495
15,000 342.16 1610.2 2610.7 1000.5 3.6846 5.3106 1.6260
17,000 352.29 1690.0 2547.5 857.5 3.8077 5.1787 1.3710
19,000 361.47 1777.2 2466.0 688.8 3.9401 5.0256 1.0855
20,000 365.75 1827.2 2412.3 585.1 4.0156 4.9314 0.9158
21,000 369.83 1887.6 2338.6 451.0 4.1064 4.8079 0.7015
22,064 373.95 2084.3 2084.3 0.0 4.4070 4.4070 0.0000

Section 9.9 - Superheated vapor water/steam table

Reference states: uf = 0.00 at 0.01°C and sf = 0.00 at 0.01°C.

Table 1: P = 10 kPa to 800 kPa

Table 2: P = 1000 kPa to 3500 kPa

Table 3: P = 4000 kPa to 11000 kPa

Table 4: P = 12000 kPa to 20000 kPa

Table 9.9.1: Superheated vapor (water/stream) table Part 1.
T vuhs
°C m3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 10 kPa Tsat = 45.806°C
Sat.14.6702437.22583.98.1488
5014.8672443.32592.08.1741
10017.1962515.52687.58.4489
15019.5132587.92783.08.6892
20021.8262661.32879.68.9049
25024.1362736.12977.49.1015
30026.4462812.33076.79.2827
40031.0632969.33279.99.6094
50035.6803132.93489.79.8998
60040.2963303.33706.310.1630
70044.9113480.83929.910.4060
80049.5273665.34160.610.6310
90054.1423856.94398.310.8430
1000 58.7584055.24642.811.0430
P = 50kPa Tsat = 81.317°C
Sat.3.24002483.22645.27.5930
50
1003.41872511.52682.47.6953
1503.88972585.72780.27.9413
2004.35622660.02877.88.1592
2504.82062735.12976.18.3568
3005.28402811.63075.88.5386
4006.20942968.93279.38.8659
5007.13383132.63489.39.1566
6008.05763303.13706.09.4201
7008.98123480.63929.79.6625
8009.90473665.24160.49.8882
90010.82803856.84398.210.1000
1000 11.75104055.14642.710.3000
P = 100 kPa Tsat = 99.606°C
Sat.1.69392505.62674.97.3588
50
1001.69592506.22675.87.3610
1501.93672582.92776.67.6148
2002.17242658.22875.57.8356
2502.40622733.92974.58.0346
3002.63882810.63074.58.2172
4003.10272968.33278.68.5452
5003.56553132.23488.78.8361
6004.02793302.83705.69.0998
7004.49003480.43929.49.3424
8004.95193665.04160.29.5681
9005.41373856.64398.09.7800
1000 5.87544055.04642.69.9800
T vuhs
°C m3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 200 kPa Tsat = 120.21°C
Sat.0.885682529.12706.27.1269
1500.959862577.12769.17.2810
2001.080502654.62870.77.5081
2501.198902731.42971.27.7100
3001.316202808.83072.17.8941
4001.549302967.13277.08.2236
5001.781403131.43487.78.5152
6002.013003302.23704.88.7792
7002.244303479.93928.89.0220
8002.475503664.74159.89.2479
9002.706603856.34397.69.4598
1000 2.937504054.84642.39.6599
P = 300 kPa Tsat = 133.52°C
Sat.0.605762543.22724.96.9916
1500.634012571.02761.27.0791
2000.716422651.02865.97.3131
2500.796442728.92967.97.5180
3000.875342807.03069.67.7037
4001.031502966.03275.58.0347
5001.186703130.63486.68.3271
6001.341403301.63704.08.5914
7001.495803479.53928.28.8344
8001.650003664.34159.39.0604
9001.804203856.04397.39.2724
1000 1.958204054.54642.09.4726
P = 400 kPa Tsat = 143.61°C
Sat.0.462382553.12738.16.8955
1500.470882564.42752.86.9306
2000.534332647.22860.97.1723
2500.595202726.42964.57.3804
3000.654892805.13067.17.5677
4000.772642964.93273.97.9002
5000.889363129.83485.58.1933
6001.005603301.03703.28.4580
7001.121503479.03927.68.7012
8001.237303663.94158.88.9273
9001.353003855.74396.99.1394
1000 1.468604054.34641.79.3396
T vuhs
°C m3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 500 kPa Tsat = 151.83°C
Sat.0.374812560.72748.16.8207
2000.425032643.32855.87.0610
2500.474432723.82961.07.2724
3000.522612803.23064.67.4614
3500.570152883.03168.17.6346
4000.617302963.73272.37.7955
5000.710943129.03484.58.0892
6000.804093300.43702.58.3543
7000.896963478.53927.08.5977
8000.989663663.64158.48.8240
9001.082303855.44396.69.0362
1000 1.174804054.04641.49.2364
P = 600 kPa Tsat = 158.83°C
Sat.0.315582566.82756.16.7592
2000.352122639.32850.66.9683
2500.393902721.22957.67.1832
3000.434422801.43062.07.3740
3500.474272881.63166.17.5481
4000.513742962.53270.87.7097
5000.592003128.23483.48.0041
6000.669763299.83701.78.2695
7000.747253478.13926.48.5131
8000.824573663.24157.98.7395
9000.901783855.14396.28.9518
1000 0.978934053.74641.19.1521
P = 800 kPa Tsat = 170.41°C
Sat.0.240342576.02768.36.6616
2000.260882631.02839.76.8176
2500.293202715.92950.47.0401
3000.324162797.53056.97.2345
3500.354422878.63162.27.4106
4000.384282960.23267.67.5734
5000.443323126.63481.37.8692
6000.501853298.73700.18.1354
7000.560113477.23925.38.3794
8000.618203662.44157.08.6061
9000.676193854.54395.58.8185
1000 0.734114053.24640.59.0189
Table 9.9.2: Superheated vapor (water/stream) table Part 2.
T vuhs
°C m3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 1000 kPa Tsat = 179.88°C
Sat.0.194362582.72777.16.5850
2000.206022622.22828.36.6955
2500.232752710.42943.16.9265
3000.257992793.63051.67.1246
3500.282502875.73158.27.3029
4000.306612957.93264.57.4669
5000.354113125.03479.17.7641
6000.401113297.53698.68.0310
7000.447833476.23924.18.2755
8000.494383661.74156.18.5024
9000.540833853.94394.88.7150
1000 0.587214052.74639.98.9155
P = 1200 kPa Tsat = 187.96°C
Sat.0.163262587.82783.76.5217
2000.169342612.92816.16.5909
2500.192412704.72935.66.8313
3000.213862789.73046.37.0335
3500.234552872.73154.27.2139
4000.254822955.53261.37.3793
5000.294643123.43476.97.6779
6000.333943296.33697.07.9455
7000.372973475.33922.98.1904
8000.411843661.04155.28.4176
9000.450593853.34394.08.6303
1000 0.489284052.24639.48.8310
P = 1400 kPa Tsat = 195.04°C
Sat.0.140782591.82788.86.4675
2000.143032602.72803.06.4975
2500.163562698.92927.96.7488
3000.182322785.73040.96.9552
3500.200292869.73150.17.1379
4000.217822953.13258.17.3046
5000.252163121.83474.87.6047
6000.285973295.13695.47.8730
7000.319513474.43921.78.1183
8000.352873660.24154.38.3457
9000.386143852.74393.38.5587
1000 0.419334051.74638.88.7594
T vuhs
°C m3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 1600 kPa Tsat = 201.37°C
Sat.0.123742594.82792.86.4199
2250.132932645.12857.86.5537
2500.141902692.92919.96.6753
3000.158662781.63035.46.8863
3500.174592866.63146.07.0713
4000.190072950.73254.97.2394
5000.220293120.13472.67.5409
6000.249993293.93693.97.8100
7000.279403473.53920.58.0557
8000.308653659.54153.38.2834
9000.337803852.14392.68.4965
1000 0.366874051.24638.28.6974
P = 1800 kPa Tsat = 207.11°C
Sat.0.110372597.22795.96.3775
2250.116782637.02847.26.4824
2500.125022686.72911.76.6087
3000.140252777.43029.96.8246
3500.154602863.63141.87.0120
4000.168492948.33251.67.1814
5000.195513118.53470.47.4845
6000.222003292.73692.37.7543
7000.248213472.63919.48.0004
8000.274263658.84152.48.2284
9000.300203851.54391.98.4416
1000 0.326064050.74637.68.6426
P = 2000 kPa Tsat = 212.38°C
Sat.0.099592599.12798.36.3390
2250.103812628.52836.16.4160
2500.111502680.22903.26.5475
3000.125512773.23024.26.7684
3500.138602860.53137.76.9583
4000.151212945.93248.37.1292
5000.175683116.93468.27.4337
6000.199613291.53690.77.7043
7000.223263471.63918.27.9509
8000.246743658.04151.58.1790
9000.270123850.94391.18.3925
1000 0.293424050.24637.08.5936
T vuhs
°C m3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 2500 kPa Tsat = 223.95°C
Sat.0.079952602.12801.96.2558
2250.080262604.82805.56.2629
2500.087052663.32880.96.4107
3000.098942762.23009.66.6459
3500.109792852.53127.06.8424
4000.120122939.83240.17.0170
5000.139993112.83462.77.3254
6000.159313288.53686.87.5979
7000.178353469.33915.27.8455
8000.197213656.24149.28.0743
9000.215973849.44389.38.2882
1000 0.234664048.94635.68.4896
P = 3000 kPa Tsat= 233.85°C
Sat.0.066662603.22803.26.1856
225
2500.070632644.72856.56.2893
3000.081182750.82994.36.5412
3500.090562844.43116.16.7449
4000.099382933.53231.76.9234
5000.116203108.63457.27.2359
6000.132453285.53682.87.5103
7000.148413467.03912.27.7590
8000.164203654.34146.97.9885
9000.179883847.94387.58.2028
1000 0.195494047.74634.18.4045
P = 3500 kPa Tsat = 242.56°C
Sat.0.057062602.92802.66.1243
225
2500.058762624.02829.76.1764
3000.068452738.82978.46.4484
3500.076802836.03104.86.6601
4000.084562927.23223.26.8427
5000.099203104.53451.67.1593
6000.113253282.53678.97.4356
7000.127023464.73909.37.6854
8000.140613652.54144.67.9156
9000.154103846.44385.78.1303
1000 0.167514046.44632.78.3324
Table 9.9.3: Superheated vapor (water/stream) table Part 3.
T vuhs
°C m3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 4000 kPa Tsat = 250.35°C
Sat.0.049782601.72800.86.0696
2750.054612668.92887.36.2312
3000.058872726.22961.76.3639
3500.066472827.43093.36.5843
4000.073432920.73214.56.7714
4500.080043011.03331.26.9386
5000.086443100.33446.07.0922
6000.098863279.43674.97.3705
7000.110983462.43906.37.6214
8000.122923650.64142.37.8523
9000.134763844.84383.98.0674
1000 0.146524045.14631.28.2697
P = 4500 kPa Tsat = 257.44°C
Sat.0.044062599.72797.96.0197
2750.047332651.32864.36.1429
3000.051382713.02944.26.2854
3500.058422818.63081.56.5153
4000.064772914.23205.66.7070
4500.070763005.83324.26.8770
5000.076523096.03440.47.0323
6000.087663276.43670.97.3127
7000.098503460.03903.37.5646
8000.109163648.84140.07.7962
9000.119723843.34382.18.0118
1000 0.130204043.94629.88.2144
P = 5000 kPa Tsat= 263.94°C
Sat.0.039452597.02794.25.9737
2750.041442632.32839.56.0571
3000.045352699.02925.76.2110
3500.051972809.53069.36.4516
4000.057842907.53196.76.6483
4500.063323000.63317.26.8210
5000.068583091.73434.76.9781
6000.078703273.33666.87.2605
7000.088523457.73900.37.5136
8000.098163646.94137.77.7458
9000.107693841.84380.27.9618
1000 0.117154042.64628.38.1648
T vuhs
°C m3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 6000 kPa Tsat = 227.58°C
Sat.0.0324482589.92784.65.8901
3000.0361892668.42885.56.0703
3500.0422512790.43043.96.3357
4000.0474192893.73178.26.5432
4500.0521662989.93302.96.7219
5000.0566713083.13423.16.8826
5500.0610213175.23541.37.0307
6000.0652653267.23658.77.1693
7000.0735453453.03894.37.4246
8000.0816483643.24133.17.6582
9000.0896413838.84376.67.8751
1000 0.0975604040.14625.48.0786
P = 7000 kPa Tsat = 285.83°C
Sat.0.0273782581.02772.65.8148
3000.0294922633.52839.95.9337
3500.0352622770.13016.96.2304
4000.0399582879.53159.26.4502
4500.0441872979.03288.36.6353
5000.0481573074.33411.46.8000
5500.0519663167.93531.66.9506
6000.0556653260.93650.67.0910
7000.0628503448.33888.27.3486
8000.0698553639.54128.47.5836
9000.0767503835.74373.07.8014
1000 0.0835714037.54622.58.0055
P = 8000 kPa Tsat = 295.01°C
Sat.0.0235262570.52758.75.7450
3000.0242792592.32786.55.7937
3500.0299752748.32988.16.1321
4000.0343442864.63139.46.3658
4500.0381942967.83273.36.5579
5000.0417673065.43399.56.7266
5500.0451723160.53521.86.8799
6000.0484633254.73642.47.0221
7000.0548283443.63882.27.2821
8000.0610113635.74123.87.5184
9000.0670823832.64369.37.7371
1000 0.0730794035.04619.67.9419
T vuhs
°C m3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 9000 kPa Tsat= 303.34°C
Sat.0.0204902558.52742.95.6791
3250.0232842647.62857.15.8738
3500.0258162724.92957.36.0380
4000.0299602849.23118.86.2876
4500.0335242956.33258.06.4872
5000.0367933056.33387.46.6603
5500.0398853153.03512.06.8164
6000.0428613248.43634.16.9605
7000.0485893438.83876.17.2229
8000.0541323632.04119.17.4606
9000.0595623829.64365.77.6802
1000 0.0649184032.44616.77.8855
P = 10000 kPa Tsat = 311.00°C
Sat.0.0180302545.22725.55.6160
3250.0198772611.62810.35.7596
3500.0224402699.62924.05.9459
4000.0264362833.13097.46.2141
4500.0297822944.53242.36.4219
5000.0328113047.03375.16.5995
5500.0356543145.43502.06.7585
6000.0383783242.03625.86.9045
7000.0435973434.03870.07.1693
8000.0486293628.24114.57.4085
9000.0535473826.54362.07.6290
1000 0.0583904029.94613.87.8349
P = 11000 kPa Tsat= 318.08°C
Sat.0.0159902530.52706.35.5545
3250.0169532569.22755.75.6375
3500.0196252672.02887.95.8542
4000.0235372816.33075.26.1440
4500.0267132932.43226.36.3607
5000.0295493037.63362.76.5431
5500.0321913137.83491.96.7050
6000.0347093235.63617.46.8531
7000.0395133429.23863.97.1204
8000.0441263624.44109.87.3610
9000.0486253823.54358.37.5824
1000 0.0530494027.34610.97.7889
Table 9.9.4: Superheated vapor (water/stream) table Part 4.
T vuhs
°C m3/kgkJ/kgkJ/kgkJ/kg•K
P = 12000 kPa Tsat = 224.68°C
Sat.0.0142642514.32685.45.4939
3500.0172212641.42848.15.7609
4000.0211062798.73052.06.0764
4500.0241492920.03209.86.3028
5000.0268283028.13350.06.4903
5500.0293043130.03481.76.6553
6000.0316513229.13608.96.8054
6500.0339123326.93733.86.9446
7000.0361093424.43857.77.0753
8000.0403753620.64105.17.3173
9000.0445243820.44354.77.5396
1000 0.0485994024.84608.07.7467
P = 13000 kPa Tsat= 330.85°C
Sat.0.0127802496.52662.75.4336
3500.0151192607.22803.75.6638
4000.0190332780.33027.76.0106
4500.0219742907.33193.06.2476
5000.0245233018.33337.16.4405
5500.0268593122.23471.36.6087
6000.0290633222.53600.46.7609
6500.0311783321.33726.66.9016
7000.0332293419.63851.57.0333
8000.0372003616.94100.47.2768
9000.0410543817.34351.07.5000
1000 0.0448334022.24605.07.7078
P = 14000 kPa Tsat = 336.67°C
Sat.0.0114852477.12637.95.3727
3500.0132322567.82753.15.5598
4000.0172402761.03002.35.9459
4500.0201042894.23175.76.1946
5000.0225443008.43324.16.3932
5500.0247633114.23460.96.5648
6000.0268453216.03591.86.7191
6500.0288353315.73719.46.8612
7000.0307613414.73845.36.9941
8000.0344793613.14095.87.2391
9000.0380803814.24347.47.4632
1000 0.0416054019.74602.17.6716
P = 15000 kPa Tsat = 342.16°C
Sat.0.0103382455.62610.75.3106
3750.0139022650.42858.95.7050
4000.0156712740.62975.75.8819
4500.0184772880.73157.96.1434
5000.0208272998.43310.86.3480
5500.0229453106.23450.46.5230
6000.0249213209.33583.16.6796
6500.0268043310.13712.16.8233
7000.0286213409.83839.16.9572
8000.0321213609.24091.17.2037
9000.0355033811.24343.77.4288
1000 0.0388084017.14599.27.6378
P =17000 kPa Tsat= 352.29°C
Sat.0.00837092405.22547.55.1787
3750.0111752586.02776.05.5385
4000.0130382696.22917.95.7536
4500.0157842852.73121.06.0451
5000.0179942977.73283.66.2628
5500.0199483089.93429.06.4451
6000.0217523195.93565.76.6063
6500.0234593298.73697.56.7531
7000.0250973400.03826.66.8894
8000.0282373601.64081.67.1388
9000.0312583805.04336.47.3658
1000 0.0342024012.04593.47.5760
P = 20000 kPa Tsat = 365.75°C
Sat.0.0058652295.02412.34.9314
3750.0076762449.12602.65.2275
4000.0099502617.92816.95.5525
4500.0127212807.23061.75.9043
5000.0147932945.33241.26.1446
5500.0165713064.73396.16.3389
6000.0181853175.33539.06.5075
6500.0196953281.43675.36.6593
7000.0211333385.13807.86.7990
8000.0238693590.14067.57.0531
9000.0264833795.74325.47.2829
1000 0.0290204004.34584.77.4950

Section 9.10 - Vapor pressure

Vapor pressure, or saturation pressure, was defined in another section. The Antoine equation is a common equation for vapor pressure as a function of temperature. Three constants are needed to calculate vapor pressures from the Antoine equations, which have been experimentally measured for many components. The Antoine equation is:

$$ log_{10}{P^{sat}} = A - \frac{B}{T + C} $$

where A, B, C are tabulated below for many components. Psat has units of mmHg, and T has units of oC.

Table 9.10.1: Vapor Pressure.
ComponentABCRange (Low T)Range (High T)
Acetaldehyde8.005521600.017291.809-0.234.4
Acetic Acid7.387821533.313222.30929.8126.5
Acetic Acid7.188071516.7225036
Acetic Anhydride7.149481444.718199.81762.8139.4
Acetone7.117141210.595229.664-12.955.3
Acrylic Acid5.65204648.629154.6832070
Ammonia7.554661002.711547.885-8360
Aniline7.32011731.515206.049102.6185.2
Benzene6.892721203.531219.88814.580.9
n-Butane6.82485943.453239.711-78-0.3
i-Butane6.78866899.617541.942-85.1-11.6
1-Butanol7.363661305.198173.42789.2125.7
2-Butanol7.201311157168.27972.4107.1
1-Butene6.53101810.261228.066-77.5-3.7
Butyric Acid8.710192433.014255.18920150
Carbon Disulfide6.942791169.11241.5933.679.9
Carbon Tetrachloride6.879261212.021226.40914.176
Chlorobenzene6.978081431.053217.5562131.7
Chlorobenzene7.10691500224042
Chlorobenzene6.945041413.1221642230
Chloroform6.954651170.966226.232-10.460.3
Chloroform6.903281163.03227.4-30150
Cyclohexane6.849411206.001223.14819.981.6
Cyclohexanol6.2553912.866109.12693.7160.7
n-Decane6.957071503.568194.73894.5175.1
1-Decene6.954331497.527197.05686.8171.6
1,1-Dichloroethane6.97721174.022229.06-38.817.6
1,1-Dichloroethane7.02531271.254222.927-30.899.4
Dichloromethane7.409161325.938252.616-4040
Diethyl Ether6.920321064.066228.799-60.819.9
Diethyl Ketone7.025291310.281214.19256.5111.3
Diethylene Glycol7.636661939.359162.714130243
Dimethyl Ether6.97603889.264241.957-78.2-24.9
Dimethylamine7.08212960.242221.667-71.86.9
N,N-Dimethylformamide6.927961400.869196.4343090
1,4-Dioxane7.431551554.679240.33720105
Ethanol8.11221592.864226.18419.693.4
Ethanolamine7.45681577.67173.36865.4170.9
Ethyl Acetate7.101791244.951217.88115.675.8
Ethyl Acetate7.098081238.71217-20150
Ethyl Chloride6.986471030.007238.612-55.912.5
Ethyl Benzene6.95651423.543213.09156.5137.1
Ethylene Glycol8.090832088.936203.4545020
Ethylene Oxide8.6690162005.779334.7650.331.8
1,2-Ethylenediamine7.1687113336.235194.36626.5117.4
Formaldehyde7.19578970.595244.124-109.4-22.3
Formic Acid7.5817816699.173260.71437.4100.7
Glycerol6.165011036.05628.097183.3260.4
n-Heptane6.902531267.828216.8325.999.3
i-Heptane6.876891238.122219.78318.590.9
1-Heptene6.913811265.12220.05121.694.5
n-Hexane6.885551175.817224.8671369.5
i-Hexane6.868391151.401228.47712.861.1
1-Hexene6.86881154.646226.0446615.964.3
Hydrogen Cyanide7.528231329.49260.418-16.446.2
Methanol8.080971582.271239.726614.983.7
Methanol7.878631473.11230-20140
Methyl Acetate7.065241157.63219.7261.855.8
Methyl Bromide7.090841046.066244.914-703.6
Methyl Chloride7.09349948.582249.336-755
Methyl Ethyl Ketone7.063561261.339221.96942.888.4
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone6.672721168.408191.94421.7116.2
Methyl Methacrylate8.409192050.467274.36939.289.2
Methylamine7.33691011.532233.286-83.1-6.2
Methylcyclohexane 6.828271273.673221.72325.6101.8
Naphthalene7.033581756.328204.84280.3179.5
Nitrobenzene7.115621746.586201.783134.1210.6
Nitromethane7.281661446.9377227.655.7136.4
n-Nonane6.937641430.459201.80870.3151.8
1-Nonene6.957771437.862205.81466.6147.9
n-Octane6.918741351.756209.152.9126.6
i-Octane6.888141319.529211.62541.7118.5
1-Octane6.936371355.779213.02244.9122.2
n-Pentane6.844711060.793231.54113.336.8
i-Pentane6.73457992.019229.56416.328.6
1-Pentanol7.182461287.625161.3374.7156
1-Pentene6.842681043.2206233.34412.830.7
Phenol7.133011516.79174.954107.2181.8
1-Propanol7.7441614337.686198.46360.2104.6
2-Propanol7.740211359.517197.52752.389.3
Propionic Acid7.714231733.418217.72472.4128.3
Propylene Oxide7.014431086.369228.594-24.234.8
Pyridine7.041151373.799214.97967.3152.9
Styrene7.066231507.434214.98529.9144.8
Toluene6.958051346.773219.69335.3111.5
1,1,1-Trichloroethane8.643442136.621302.769-5.416.9
1,1,2-Trichloroethane6.951851314.41209.19750113.7
Trichloroethylene6.518271018.603192.73117.886.5
Vinyl Acetate7.21011296.13226.65521.872
Water8.107651750.286235060
Water7.966811668.2122860150
m-Xylene7.006461460.183214.922759.2140
o-Xylene7.001541476.393213.87263.5145.4
p-Xylene6.98821451.792215.11158.3139.3

Section 9.11 - Heat capacity

Heat capacity is defined in another section. Two different polynomial forms and corresponding coefficients for many components are given here. These tables provide data for heat capacity and enthalpy calculations.

The first polynomial equation requires up to four constants and applies for many solids, liquids, and gases.

$$ \sf C_P = a + b \cdot T + c \cdot T^2 + d \cdot T^3 $$

where CP is in either kJ/(mol∙°C) or kJ/(mol∙K), and T is in either °C or K.

Table 9.11.1: Heat capacity data for common components.
ComponentStateabcdTemp UnitRange (Low T)Range (High T)
Acetoneliquid1.230E-011.860E-04----------ºC-90
Acetonegas7.196E-022.010E-04-1.278E-073.476E-11ºC01200
Acetylenegas4.243E-026.053E-05-5.033E-081.820E-11ºC01200
Airgas2.894E-024.147E-063.191E-09-1.965E-12ºC01500
Ammoniagas3.515E-022.954E-054.421E-09-6.686E-12ºC01200
Ammonium Sulfatesolid2.159E-01---------------K275328
Benzeneliquid1.265E-012.340E-04----------ºC667
Benzenegas7.406E-023.295E-04-2.520E-077.757E-11ºC01200
Isobutanegas8.946E-023.013E-04-1.891E-074.987E-11ºC01200
n-Butanegas9.230E-022.788E-04-1.547E-073.498E-11ºC01200
Isobutenegas8.288E-022.564E-04-1.727E-075.050E-11ºC01200
Calcium Hydroxidesolid8.950E-02---------------K276373
Carbon Dioxidegas3.611E-024.233E-05-2.887E-087.464E-12ºC01500
Carbon Monoxidegas2.895E-024.110E-063.548E-09-2.220E-12ºC01501
Carbon Tetrachlorideliquid9.339E-021.298E-04----------K273343
Chlorinegas3.360E-021.367E-05-1.607E-086.473E-12ºC01200
Coppersolid2.276E-026.117E-06----------K2731357
Cumene (Isopropyl Benzene)gas1.392E-015.376E-04-3.979E-071.205E-10ºC01200
Cyclohexanegas9.414E-024.962E-04-1.390E-078.063E-11ºC01200
Cyclopentanegas7.339E-023.928E-04-2.554E-076.866E-11ºC01200
Ethanegas4.937E-021.392E-04-5.816E-087.280E-12ºC01200
Ethanolliquid9.839E-02---------------ºC2575
Ethanolgas6.134E-021.572E-04-8.749E-081.983E-11ºC01200
Ethylenegas4.075E-021.147E-04-6.891E-081.766E-11ºC01200
Formaldehydegas3.428E-024.268E-05------8.694E-12ºC01200
Heliumgas2.080E-02---------------ºC01200
n-Hexaneliquid2.163E-01---------------ºC20100
n-Hexanegas1.374E-014.085E-04-2.392E-075.766E-11ºC01200
Hydrogengas2.884E-027.650E-083.288E-09-8.698E-13ºC01500
Hydrogen Bromidegas2.910E-02-2.270E-079.887E-09-4.858E-12ºC01200
Hydrogen Chloridegas2.913E-02-1.341E-069.715E-09-4.335E-12ºC01200
Hydrogen Cyanidegas3.530E-022.908E-05-1.092E-08-----ºC01200
Hydrogen Sulfidegas3.351E-021.547E-053.012E-09-3.292E-12ºC01500
Magnesium Chloridesolid7.240E-021.580E-05----------K273991
Methanegas3.431E-025.469E-053.661E-09-1.100E-11ºC01200
Methanolliquid7.586E-021.683E-04----------ºC065
Methanolgas4.293E-028.301E-05-1.870E-08-8.030E-12ºC0700
Methyl Cyclohexanegas1.213E-015.653E-04-3.772E-071.008E-10ºC01200
Methyl Cyclopentanegas9.883E-024.586E-04-3.044E-078.381E-11ºC01200
Nitric Oxideliquid1.100E-01---------------ºC25
Nitric Oxidegas2.950E-028.188E-06-2.925E-093.652E-13ºC03500
Nitrogengas2.900E-022.199E-065.723E-09-2.871E-12ºC01500
Nitrogen Dioxidegas3.607E-023.970E-05-2.880E-087.870E-12ºC01200
Nitrogen Tetraoxidegas7.570E-021.250E-04-1.130E-07-----ºC0300
Nitrous Oxidegas3.766E-024.151E-05-2.694E-081.057E-11ºC01200
Oxygengas2.910E-021.158E-05-6.076E-091.311E-12ºC01500
n-Pentaneliquid1.554E-014.368E-04----------ºC036
n-Pentanegas1.148E-013.409E-04-1.899E-074.226E-11ºC01200
Propanegas6.803E-022.259E-04-1.311E-073.171E-11ºC01200
Propylenegas5.958E-021.771E-04-1.017E-072.460E-11ºC01200
Sodium Carbonatesolid1.210E-01---------------K288371
Sodium Carbonate - Decahydratesolid5.356E-01---------------K298
Sulfur (rhombic)solid1.520E-022.680E-05----------K373368
Sulfur (monoclinic)solid1.830E-021.840E-05----------K368392
Sulfuric Acidliquid1.391E-011.559E-04----------ºC1045
Sulfur Dioxidegas3.891E-023.904E-05-3.104E-088.606E-12ºC01500
Sulfur Trioxidegas4.850E-029.188E-05-8.540E-083.240E-11ºC01000
Tolueneliquid1.488E-013.240E-04----------ºC0110
Toluenegas9.418E-023.800E-04-2.786E-078.033E-11ºC01200
Waterliquid7.540E-02---------------ºC0100
Watergas3.346E-026.880E-067.604E-09-3.593E-12ºC01500

A second polynomial equation requires three constants, always uses K as the temperature unit, and applies only for components in the solid phase.

$$ \sf C_P = a + b \cdot T + \large{\frac{c}{T^2}} $$

where CP has units of kJ/mol-K and T has units of or K.

Table 9.11.2: Heat capacity data for some components.
ComponentabcRange (Low T)Range (High T)
Calcium Carbide6.862E-021.190E-05-8.660E+02298720
Calcium Carbonate8.234E-024.975E-05-1.287E+032731033
Calcium Oxide4.184E-022.030E-05-4.520E+022731173
Carbon1.118E-021.095E-05-4.891E+022731373
Ferric Oxide1.034E-016.711E-05-1.772E+032731097
Magnesium Oxide4.544E-025.008E-06-8.732E+022732073

Section 9.12 - Heat of solution for three common solutions

The enthalpy path related to heat of solution is in another section. These enthalpies are all at 25°C.

Table 9.12.1: Heat of solution.
r
[mol H2O/mol solute]
(∆hs)HCl(g)
[kJ/mol HCl]
(∆hs)NaOH(s)
[kJ/mol NaOH]
(∆hs)H2SO4
[kJ/mol H2SO4]
1-26.22--28.07
2-48.82--41.92
3-56.85-28.87-48.99
4-61.20-34.43-54.06
5-64.05-37.74-58.03
10-69.49-42.51-67.03
50-73.26-42.51-73.34
100-73.85-42.34-73.97
500-74.52-42.38-76.73
1000-74.68-42.47-78.57
5000-74.93-42.68-84.43
10000-74.99-42.72-87.07
-75.14-42.89-96.19
Tables from appendix of "Material and Energy Balances" (Matthew Liberatore). Copyright © "zyBooks" 2016.